Wuhan Coronavirus

Don’t Panic: What You Need to Know about the Wuhan Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

The news is full of dire warnings about the new Wuhan Coronavirus spreading from China throughout the world. Turn on TV and three more countries have reported the virus infecting someone. Listen to the radio and it seems the infected count rises every hour. Social media is crammed with posts and comments. Airports are testing passengers for fever (one of the earliest symptoms). And cities in China are under quarantine.

Is the world ending? Are we being invaded by the superbug of the century? Is this a conspiracy to take over the world through bio warfare?

No.

This report has been compiled using reliable sources such as the Center for Disease Control, World Health Organization, and published scientific research.

You will NOT find a cure for the Wuhan Coronavirus in this report because there isn’t any.

What you will find is information you can use to protect yourself and your family, and maybe find a little peace of mind in the process.

What is a Coronavirus?

Coronavirus is a viral infection of the respiratory system. Most of the time, while the victim may be uncomfortable with the symptoms, there are no lasting effects. The fatality rate is very low. The common cold is a coronavirus. Coronavirus are spread from droplets containing the virus passing from human to human.

The name, coronavirus, is based on the appearance of the virus having lots of stalks on its surface sort of like a crown. Hence the name coronavirus.

Only seven coronaviruses infect humans. Most coronaviruses only infect animals and do not transmit from animals to humans.

Three coronaviruses are deadly.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, aka SARS, broke out in China in 2003. Total fatalities reached 774 with nearly 8,100 people infected. It is thought that civet cats were the culprit in infecting humans. Health officials believe SARS is under control.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, aka MERS, originated in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. Infection is believed to come from camels. MERS has a high fatality rate of 30% to 40%, which is one of the reasons the World Health Organization has labeled MERS an immediate threat to global health. Nearly 1500 people have been infected with MERS and between 300 to 500 have died. Fortunately it seems the infection rate is on the decline.

Wuhan Coronavirus has infected thousands of people, the count as of date of publication is over 17,000 since its discovery in late December 2019 and the rate may be accelerating. The death toll has reached over 300. The fatality rate is between 2% to 3%. Information as of February 3, 2020.

The number of cases may be much higher. The confirmed cases are from genetic tracing of the virus found in patients in the hospital. If a person doesn’t go to the hospital then they won’t be diagnosed. So far symptoms are not severe enough in most of the population to warrant hospitalization.

Influenza is More Prevalent and Deadlier than the Wuhan Coronavirus

For most people getting the flu is like getting a really bad cold. However, influenza has been deadly in the past and still is for certain segments of the population. The Spanish flu from 1917 through 1920 killed millions of victims. It spread rapidly, had a high mortality rate and unfortunately there were no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections. Penicillin wasn’t discovered until 1928. And, of course, there were no vaccines to prevent the spread of influenza. What is especially alarming about the Spanish flu is that it spread quickly at a time when travel was limited and much slower than modern day cars, trains, and planes.

The avian or bird flu wasn’t very contagious but had a high fatality rate. So the odds were against you catching the flu but when you did the outlook wasn’t very favorable.

The 2009 Swine Flu, influenza A (H1N1), is actually an influenza virus that is a combination of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that derives from one strain of human influenza, one strain of avian (bird) influenza, and two separate strains of swine influenza.

And that’s what so insidious about the flu — and viruses for that matter — it may remain rather innocuous for years and then wham, become deadly. The next flu pandemic could be just around the corner.

Prior to April 2009 Swine Flu had been limited to pigs aka swine. It is possible for humans to catch true swine flu but it has rarely happened. The human has to be around infected swine on a regular basis. The virus passes from pig to human. There have been different varieties or strains of swine flu through the years. Currently there is a vaccination to prevent swine flu in pigs. But that doesn’t mean the virus won’t mutate so the vaccination becomes useless.

Swine flu was first diagnosed in pigs in 1930. Almost 50 years later in 1976, a little over 200 soldiers at Fort Dix in New Jersey, came down with swine flu. From that time until 2005 there were few cases reported, less than one per year. From 2005 through January 2009 there were only 12 cases reported.

The run-of-the-mill flu that comes around every winter and early spring isn’t necessarily a severe illness. However, the very young and the old are susceptible to complications including pneumonia and that’s why the health department encourages everyone to get a flu shot every year. FYI those flu shots are only 40% to 60% effective in preventing the flu. If you do still get the flu, you’ll get a milder case. At least that’s the theory. If you have the flu, the vaccine does not prevent you from spreading the flu.

Influenza is caused by viruses not bacteria. Other diseases caused by viruses are the common cold, shingles, HIV, Ebola, and the measles.

Viruses, Including the Wuhan Coronavirus, Are Nasty Creatures

Viruses are structures that only replicate or reproduce themselves within a host cell. Outside a host cell they are dormant. Scientists do not agree on whether viruses should be considered a life form or be classified as biochemical mechanisms. Being alive is defined as reproducing, taking in and using energy, eliminating waste, growing and responding to the environment. Viruses only “live” for short periods of time outside the host cell if “live” is defined as maintaining the ability to reproduce themselves inside a host cell. Perhaps better terms than live or dead when talking about viruses would be active and de-activated. Viruses are not deactivated or “killed” by antibiotic treatment.

Why are viruses so dangerous to the host cells?  The virus has a limited amount of DNA information for use in reproducing itself but it doesn’t have all the necessary biological materials. The only purpose of a virus is to replicate itself. Once it enters the host cell it uses that host’s material to replicate itself thousands of times, destroying the host cell and invading other cells within the host. The viruses can leave the host cell a few at a time called “budding,” or all the viruses can leave at once called “lysis.” Think of it as an intensive alien invasion because that’s what it is.

Every living organism, plant, animal, or bacteria matter, is susceptible to viruses. The saving grace is that specific viruses can only find the genetic material they need to replicate within specific organisms. In other words, the tobacco mosaic virus only affects tobacco plants. To make matters worse there may be a hundred different viruses with the capability to infect one specific organism.

The really bad news is that viruses can evolve and mutate. One virus has the capacity to reproduce itself hundreds of thousands of times. Each reproduction can lead to a small change, or mutation, within the virus. Even if 90% of the reproduced viruses are faulty, the remaining 10% are functioning. Some of the mutations may mean they can infect other organisms besides the original host. The ebola virus is thought to have originated in fruit bats, mutated to primates and then mutated to infect humans. While it seems to have run itself out currently, it could come back.

Some viruses remain in the host after the initial infection and then cause further serious damage later, much like the chicken pox virus causes shingles.

The influenza virus is another virus that is notorious for mutating. The avian influenza mutated to be able to infect humans in the early 2000’s. What causes a particular virus to mutate isn’t really known.

The Wuhan Coronavirus is Brand New.

It’s thought to be a virus that is a combination of a bat virus and snake virus which mutated and originated in a market located in the city of Wuhan, China. Both bats and snakes are considered delicacies in China. The cages can be kept close together. The disease has now been confirmed as passing from human to human.

What’s Dangerous About the Wuhan Coronavirus

The Wuhan coronavirus is transmitted from human to human. This new strain doesn’t have a developed vaccine to prevent infection. It takes time to figure out what the new strain consists of, how it developed and then create a vaccine. Scientists believe the vaccine may be as much as a year away.

This was the problem with the swine flu. It literally infected millions before a vaccine could be developed. Vaccines work by introducing a weakened or dead strain of the virus into the body. The body builds up an immunity to the weakened or dead virus. When the full strength, live virus tries to invade the body, the body can fight back with the previously produced antibodies.

Antibiotics are only useful for secondary bacterial infections. BTW antibodies are different than antibiotics. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections. None at all. Nada. Nothing. Don’t think taking a series of antibiotics prevents or treats the flu, the Wuhan coronavirus or any other virus for that matter. Antibiotics kill bacteria not viruses.

You might think it’s a good idea to start a series of antibiotics to prevent getting any secondary infection. Think again. Antibiotics today aren’t as effective as they were 20 years ago because bacteria are becoming resistant. Look at it this way. The weak bacteria are killed off by say amoxicillin, an antibiotic that’s a derivative of penicillin. However, a strain of bacteria develops that is highly resistant to amoxicillin. You then need stronger antibiotics to kill off the strain that’s resistant. It doesn’t help that animals are fed antibiotics — not to cure infections — but to help them gain weight faster. The bacteria becomes resistant to the antibiotics and are useless in treating infections. 

If your doctor prescribes antibiotics take the full course. You may feel better after only a few days — most antibiotics start working after the first 48 hours. However, the bacteria causing the infection are still at work. The stronger bacteria may survive a week of antibiotics and cause a re-infection if you stop too early.

Wuhan virus has spread as fast as the Swine Flu, appearing in the United States, Canada, Australia, France, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, and of course China.

Why Be Concerned About the Wuhan Coronavirus

The disease is new, no vaccine is available, and has already in the last 60 days or so infected more than 8,000 people in 12 countries (including the United States). Nearly all those infected are in China. These are only the reported cases determined by genetic testing for the virus in people who have been hospitalized. The actual number could be considerably higher.

The Chinese government may be intentionally underreporting the diagnosed cases as they did with the SARS coronavirus. The country is huge and in poorer regions the people have fewer medical facilities, so cases there may not be diagnosed and reported. The news agencies are under government control and may have been prohibited from reporting the true number of cases.

Unfortunately, the rate of infection seems to be accelerating.

The infectious rate for someone who has the Wuhan Coronavirus is to infect 1.5 to 2.5 other people. Influenza has an infectious rate of 1.3. What this means that if the infection is 2.0 for example, one person infects two more. Those two infect four more. Those four infect eight more. Those eight infect 16. Those 16 infect 32. The rate accelerates pretty quickly.

The incubation period – that space of time when the virus has invaded your body but you don’t have symptoms yet –  is seemingly between seven to 12 days. That’s a relatively long period. While there are no symptoms the person can unknowingly transmit the virus to others.

While China is trying to quarantine the disease, many infected people who may not be exhibiting symptoms are spreading the disease. Another worrisome factor is that at least one “superspreader” has been found. A superspreader is someone who infects others at a much higher level than average. In other words, if the average infectious rate is 1.5 the superspreader would have an infectious rate substantially higher. The more superspreaders, the faster the disease spreads. The superspreader patient in Wuhan China infected 15 health care workers.

How the Wuhan Coronavirus is Transmitted

As stated above these viruses can’t exist, live, or remain active, for long outside the host. Viruses can be transmitted in a number of ways. The HIV virus is spread by direct contact with bodily fluids, so is Ebola. Smallpox, a virus deadly in the past, is contracted through lengthy exposure to an infected person. The respiratory flu is spread through respiratory droplets.

The Wuhan Coronavirus is spread from person to person through respiratory droplets as well.

To become infected you must be standing within about 3 to 6 feet of an infected person, close enough to breathe in the virus infected water droplets expelled through breathing, coughing or sneezing. Just passing by someone on the street won’t get you infected.

The coronavirus which causes the common cold can land on a hard surface and live up to 24 hours or on a soft surface and live less than 30 minutes. The UV exposure of the surface and air temperatures affect how long the virus will live as well.

Even exposure to someone with the Wuhan coronavirus doesn’t mean you’ll get sick. The human body has wonderful defenses. If only a few cells are infected the body produces and secretes something called interferons. These are proteins and are designated alpha, beta, or gamma interferon. These particular proteins interact with the cells adjacent to the infected cells to make them more resistant to viral infection. This natural defense often works to stop the virus dead in its tracks. The interferon does not kill the virus but makes the cells more resistant to the viral invasion. The virus can’t reproduce so it dies off. Later on, you may not even have known that you were infected at all.

Sometimes however the virus is stronger and spreads to more cells and you start feeling sick. At that point the immune system begins to fight by killing the viruses that are outside of the cells and the infected cells themselves.

Symptoms: What Happens When You Become Infected

The Wuhan corona virus causes a low grade fever as the first symptom with a dry hacking cough two to seven days later with shortness of breath, along with general achiness, sore throat, and stomach issues, including diarrhea. Not every victim exhibits every symptom. Severe symptoms include a high fever, pneumonia, kidney failure and death. Not every infected person exhibits every symptom.

Older people and those with other health issues seem more susceptible to severe symptoms and death.

The virus can enter through your nasal passages or your mouth but this doesn’t mean you’re automatically infected. The mucous membranes of your nose and throat trap the virus, as well as dust, foreign bodies, and bacteria, rendering them harmless. The small microscopic hairs, called cilia, that line air way passages sweep over 100 times per minute and can sweep the virus right back out. If a virus does get through and enters a body cell it immediately begins the replication process and that’s when the trouble starts.

The body cell, once it’s invaded, sends out a distress signal through MHC, a chemical in every body cell, that recognizes what’s foreign to the body and what belongs there. This chemical boots the viral protein to the surface of the cell. Killer T-cells, a type of white blood cell, sense the distress call and kill the cell and the virus within by coating the cell with toxic chemicals. The dead cells are cleaned up by macrophage cells which surround and consume cellular debris and pathogens.. Histamines increase the blood flow to the area. More blood flow means more killer T-cells.

At this point your throat really, really hurts because the blood vessels swollen with the increased blood are pressing on nerve cells and pain receptors. The body temperature starts to rise as the number of macrophages increase. Your body aches because your pain threshold has been lowered. Fever increases as the body tries to boost new cell production. You get the chills because your muscles contract to generate more heat. Blood flows away from your skin so you feel cold. You get a headache because of the increasing pressure of the swollen blood vessels in your brain. Now, you could take aspirin to bring down the fever but that’s counterproductive. The fever is one way your body fights against the virus.

If the virus gains momentum and the T-cells start losing the fight, the infection spreads to the lungs. The macrophages that have destroyed the dead cells are in the blood stream and pass eventually through a lymph node. The viral material in the macrophage is detected and triggers more production of white blood cells including T-cells. This increased production causes the lymph glands to swell and become tender.

The T-cells go to the site of the viral infection and start destroying more cells which increases the debris. Coughing is how the debris is expelled from the throat and lungs.

The fight isn’t over yet. Another immune cell, single B-cells in the lymph glands, produces antibodies that rush to the site of the infection, trap the virus and prevent it from replicating. Sounds like a horror film, doesn’t it? Finally the battle turns in favor of the body and the viral infection begins to fade. It’s been a struggle but you’ve won and begin the road to recovery. The entire process lasts from one to two weeks.

Vomiting and diarrhea are not common with most types of respiratory influenza, but can be a symptom of the Wuhan Coronavirus.

Complications

The immune system is the primary weapon in the battle with the coronavirus and those with immature or weakened immune systems are at risk for pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections. The very young and old and those with respiratory problems are especially vulnerable.

In severe cases, the Wuhan coronavirus can bring on respiratory failure and death. The current fatality rate of those sick enough to be hospitalized is 3% from pneumonia and kidney failure. As more cases are diagnosed this percentage may increase or decrease, but so far has held steady.

Treatments

Once you have contracted the Wuhan coronavirus there isn’t any so-called cure. There are things you can do to feel better. Treating the symptoms is the course of action.

Antiviral drugs don’t seem to work for the Wuhan coronavirus as they do for influenza. Antiviral drugs prevent a virus from reproducing and to be an effective treatment must be started within 48 hours of getting sick.

Get plenty of rest. If you need to stay in bed, then do so. Your body heals and restores itself as you sleep. When you rest all your resources go to feeling better and thwarting the flu virus.

Drink plenty of fluids. Your body need to re-hydrate, especially if you have fever. Drink a glass of water or other liquids every hour or so, even if you don’t feel thirsty. If you don’t feel like eating, then don’t.

Taking aspirin or Tylenol may lower the fever and reduce pain but as noted the fever is one of the ways the body fights off the viral infection. Do not give children aspirin. Don’t go over the recommended dosage.

A salt solution nasal spray helps with stuffiness.

Gargling with salt water helps an irritated throat.

Wuhan Coronavirus Prevention

The only 100% effective method of prevention is to avoid coming in contact with anyone else. Since that’s not possible for most individuals, there are some steps you can take that lessen the odds of coming down with a coronavirus such as the Wuhan Coronavirus.  

Wash Your Hands

Wash your hands often with soap and warm water for at least 20 to 30 seconds. If you don’t have access to soap and water use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer gel. Rub a dollop of gel on your hands until it evaporates. Use an alcohol based hand wipe. Hand washing is one of the most effective ways to stop the spread of both germs and viruses.

Think of all the surfaces you touch that other people touch:

door handles

computer keyboards

supermarket carts

chair arms

telephones

food service trays

stair railings

bathroom fixtures

If a person has the coronavirus, even without obvious symptoms, and touches their nose or mouth and then the door handle, they leave viruses on the handle. You come along and touch the handle to open the door and the viruses are now on your hand. Touching your hand to your nose or your mouth leads the virus right to where it wants to be.

Keep a small bottle of hand sanitizer in your pocket and use it every time you touch something that other people may have touched.

Be conscious of how many times you touch your face. And stop doing it.

Many grocery stores now provide disinfectant wipes to be used on the grocery carts. Most doors now open automatically so it’s not necessary to touch any handles. When you’re in the store, apply hand sanitizer after checking out. Both the cashier and courtesy help have contact with hundreds of customers each day.

You might want to consider two other measures that are a bit more extreme: wearing disposable latex gloves whenever you’re in public and a wearing face mask.

If you wear gloves remember you still should not touch your nose or mouth as the virus can live on the latex surface. Dispose of the gloves and face mask so others aren’t exposed. And don’t become complacent thinking that if you wear a face mask or don gloves you don’t have to do anything else.

The masks are only effective for one wearing. They block large droplets of water but do not seal the area around the nose and mouth completely. If you touch the mask to remove it and then touch your nose or mouth the effectiveness is lost.

Wipe off and Disinfect

You may be diligent about washing your hands but other members of your family may not be, especially children. Wipe down counters, door handles, and telephone mouth pieces, with a disinfectant. Keyboards are more of a challenge but should be disinfected as well. Careful use of rubbing alcohol works as it evaporates quickly. Don’t share toothbrushes. Household bleach is an effective inexpensive disinfectant. Use one part bleach to 10 parts water. Vinegar is a disinfectant as well but not as powerful as bleach.

Use paper towels and cups in the bathroom and kitchen. Don’t share food. Drink from someone else’s cup.

Stay Away from Crowds

It’s common sense that the more people you’re around the more likely it is you will come into contact with someone who is sick.

Boosting Your Immune System

It would seem prudent to bolster your body’s ability to fight back.

Foods and Supplements that boost immunity include:

Vitamin C: Found in lots of fruits and vegetables but especially citrus fruits. Vitamin C fortified foods abound. And of course it’s found in supplements. Why does Vitamin C work?  It increases production of white blood cells, antibodies and interferon.

Vitamin E: Whole grains, leafy green vegetables, egg yolks, and nuts all contain Vitamin E. Vitamin E stimulates the production of Killer T-cells and increases the production of B-cells which manufacture antibodies.

Carotenoids: Beta carotene boosts Killer T-cells. Carotenoids are found in carrots, sweet potatoes, kale and spinach. It increases the number of infection-fighting cells, natural killer cells, and helper T-cells, as well as being a powerful antioxidant.

Zinc:  Found in protein, primarily from animal sources, and is available as a supplement. It increases the production of white blood cells that fight infection and help the body release more antibodies.


Garlic: A member of the onion family and available as a supplement, it boosts production of white blood cells and antibody production.


Selenium: Found in a number of protein sources, brown rice, sunflower seeds, and nuts and of course available as a supplement. This mineral increases Killer T-cells.


Omega-3 fatty acids: The omega 3 fatty acids in flax oil and fatty fish (such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel) boosts immunity by increasing the activity of macrophages.

Some people believe that herbal supplements can boost the immune system the same way that foods, vitamins, and supplements can. Four that are often mentioned are Echinacea, Ginseng, Astragalus, and Marshmallow root – also known as Althaea. Do they work? No scientific studies have been conducted that prove that they do. But that’s understandable. The herbal supplements can’t be patented so there is no motivation for the big pharmaceutical companies to spend the money to conduct the studies.

Get Rest

Your body heals and recharges itself when you’re asleep. It’s important to give your body enough sleep time. That’s not always easy in today’s hectic world. There are herbal supplements that have been shown to promote sleep such as Melatoninand herbal teas like chamomile, passion flower, lemon balm, or hops. And the old fashioned remedy of warm milk really does work in promoting sleep.

Keep your bedroom sleep oriented, with no laptop computer or work related stuff around and keep it dark with light blocking shades. Wear a sleep mask; ambient light works against sleep. Turn the clock away from you so you don’t see the time and worry about it. And so the light from the digital display isn’t visible. Lower the temperature of the bedroom. It’s been shown the people sleep better in a cooler room. A drop in body temperature means sounder sleep.

Don’t drink a lot of alcohol. While you may fall asleep faster when the alcohol wears off it will disturb the sleep cycle. Keep in mind that some over-the-counter cough and cold medicines have as much as 10% alcohol.

Drink lots of fluids during the day but limit fluids an hour or so before bedtime so sleep isn’t interrupted by having to use the bathroom.

Decrease Stress Levels

It is thought that prolonged high stress levels weaken the immune system. Each of us has moments when the stress in our lives seems overwhelming. We’ve just started a new job, had a baby, gotten married or faced an illness. But everyday life can be filled with stressful moments as well. Decreasing stress levels can boost our immunity to illnesses, including influenza. Here are a few tips to help keep stress from building up.

Changing your diet to include more fresh vegetables and fruits and less sugars, salt, and refined carbohydrates can be helpful. Obviously decreasing your caffeine intake would help as well. Caffeine can aggravate some of the symptoms of stress. Lemon balm tea is a good substitute for coffee as it has calming properties.

Aromatherapy is another way to bring down stress levels. Aromatherapy relies on the use of essential oils. Essential oils are derived from plants, herbs, flowers, woods and citrus fruit peel. Lavender, Clary Sage, Rosemary, Sandalwood, and Tangerine are a few essential oils that have a calming soothing effect. Lavender is used in some baby bath products to help infants drift calmly off to sleep.

The oil can be added to a non-scented candle and burned. Light the candle and let it develop a pool of melted wax around the wick. Blow out the candle and add the essential oil to the melted wax and then relight. If you just add the oil to the melted wax while the candle is lit, the oil floats on top and is burnt off immediately.

The oils can be added to a warm bath, ¼ teaspoon up to a full teaspoon. The warm bath itself reduces stress by increasing blood circulation and relaxing muscles. Epsom salt and sea salt  (1 to 2 cups) added to a  bathtub in addition to the essential oils soothes sore muscles and adds a sense of buoyancy.

Be careful rubbing essential oils directly on your skin: it could cause irritation.

Exercise is a time tested method of reducing stress levels. Just make sure that the exercise is completed at least four hours before bedtime. Exercising closer to bedtime might make it more difficult to fall asleep.

Massage, especially on the neck and shoulders, reduces stress, and helps alleviate the headaches that some people experience with stress. Self-massage can be performed on the temples, and back of the neck.

Yoga and Pilates (an exercise discipline) include stretching movements which releases tension within the muscles and aids in blood flow, thereby reducing stress.

Meditation is well known for its ability to decrease stress. Meditation can be combined with aromatherapy and gentle stretches after the session is completed.

You Think You May Have the Wuhan Coronavirus

Don’t panic. The odds are greatly against you getting the Wuhan Coronavirus regardless of the hysteria of the media, And if you do it’s not a death sentence, or necessarily a severe illness. There isn’t any way to tell if you have the flu, a common cold, or the Wuhan virus without confirmation in the hospital through diagnostic testing. And even if you do contract the disease, you’ll most likely come through just fine..  

Use tissues when you sneeze or cough and immediately dispose of the tissue into a plastic lined paper bag. Wash your hands after every cough or sneeze. If you’re too weak to get up to wash your hands use hand sanitizer. Doing this won’t make you any better but it will protect your family and friends from getting sick.

A humidifier adds moisture to the air which is soothing to your throat and nasal membranes. Holding your head over steaming water has the same effect but be careful of burns. If you have a facial steamer, that is effective as well.

Be careful about using an over-the-counter nasal decongestant spray. After three days of constant use, the spray can actually make you more congested.

Your grandma was right: chicken soup does help alleviate symptoms. Seriously. If you don’t have a grandma handy to make homemade soup, canned is fine.

Conclusion

While any new disease has a frightening potential for spreading illness across the globe, there are efforts we can take to keep ourselves safe. Knowing what the Wuhan coronavirus is, what it isn’t, how it’s transmitted, and how you can decrease the odds of becoming infected are the first steps in keeping you and your family healthy and safe.

Keep up-to-date on where new cases have been found. Visit the world health organization, http://www.who.int/en/ for the latest information.

Take necessary precautions yourself and make sure your family does the same.

Don’t panic if you come down with symptoms.

Avoid crowded venues.

If you do become sick don’t infect others by going back to work while you’re still ill.

Read here for 10 tips how to avoid Coronavirus and Influenza